Balloon Sinuplasty

Balloon sinuplasty is a minimally invasive treatment for sinusitis, also called chronic rhino-sinusitis (CRS).

A constantly runny nose or blocked nose where you can barely breathe and pain in the face, are some of the common symptoms faced by people suffering from sinusitis. Symptoms of most people may resolve with antibiotics but at times a procedure of balloon sinuplasty is the way to go for chronic indications when medical therapy has not provided adequate relief. A CT scan determines if balloon sinuplasty is the appropriate treatment for your condition. Balloon Sinuplasty is a safe and minimally invasive procedure. There are no implants and it does not leave any visible scarring or bruising. It is performed entirely through the nostrils. Most patients can go home the same day.

Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery

Endoscopic sinus surgery is a procedure used to remove blockages in the sinuses. This procedure is designed to improve the drainage of the sinuses and to improve airflow through the nose.

We develop sinusitis when the tissue lining our nose begins to swell and traps the mucus that would typically flow out of the nose. The trapped mucus can get infected with bacteria. FESS resolves the obstruction, congestion and improves the airflow and symptoms of sinusitis. A CT scan or nasal endoscopy determines if the procedure is required. FESS is minimally invasive, with no scarring as it is performed through the nostrils. Contrary to popular belief 80% to 90% people with chronic sinusitis feel the surgery ‘cured’ them. But FESS significantly eases one’s symptoms and limits how often your chronic sinus flares.

Note: Balloon Sinuplasty is used when simply enlarging a blocked sinus passage is sufficient and no cutting is required. On the other hand, FESS involves making incisions that are very precise in order to remove or minimize problematic bone or tissue within the nasal passages.

Nasal Obstruction

Nasal obstruction is not a disease but rather it is a symptom of an underlying disorder. It can cause the nasal passages to be obstructed or blocked.

The most common causes of nasal obstruction can be enlarged adenoids and nasal allergies. Other less common causes can be polyps, tumors and congenital abnormalities. Patients with nasal obstruction mostly present with breathing difficulties – inability or decreased ability to breathe from one or both nostrils. This can affect sleep and also cause snoring. A nasal exam by the ENT along with X-rays or CT scans or other methods can determine the right cause of nasal obstruction.

Nose bleeds

A nosebleed is simply the loss of blood from the tissue that lines the inside of your nose. In medical terminology it is called as epistaxis.

Most nosebleeds are not serious and/or life-threatening and will resolve on their own. Some 60% of people will have at least one nosebleed in their lifetime and only 6% may need immediate medical intervention. Though alarming to look at, but most of the bleeds can be managed at home. Most nosebleeds do not have an underlying disease and can be caused by dry air, heated indoor air causing the delicate tissue of the nose to dry out, become crusty and likely to bleed if rubbed or picked. However, if you have very frequent nosebleeds or have had an injury to the nose, due to which the bleed doesn’t stop even after 20 minutes of applying pressure or causes difficulty in breathing then medical attention is required. An examination by an ENT would help in diagnosis and treatment.

Chronic Sinusitis

A cold that doesn’t go away could be a sign of sinusitis – a condition where the sinuses are infected and inflamed and are blocked with fluid. If the condition persists, it’s called chronic sinusitis.

The sinuses are four paired cavities connected via narrow channels. These channels help in draining out the thin mucus that the sinuses naturally produce. This drainage keeps the nose clean and free from bacteria. When this drainage is hindered the mucus is collected in the sinuses causing blockage and infection. Chronic sinusitis symptoms never really go away for long periods of time – 12 weeks or more. The cause can be asthmatic conditions, allergies, infections (bacterial, viral or fungal), polyps and even a weak immune system. A physical examination or a CT-scan or an MRI, as advised, by the ENT doctor will help in diagnosing the cause and degree of sinusitis. Chronic sinusitis can be cured, but one may require multiple therapies for effective management.


Headaches are a very common condition and are characterized by pain in any region of the head or face. Nearly 75% of adults worldwide have suffered from headaches at least once within the past year.

A headache may appear as a sharp pain, a dull ache or a throbbing sensation that can occur on one or both sides of the head or radiate from a point to the other in the head or be isolated to a particular location. They can develop suddenly or gradually over a period of time and can last for a few hours to few days. Their causes can range from migraine to stress, trauma, infection etc. Sometimes headaches can be migraines with nasal symptoms. Going to an ENT doctor will help determine if the headache is caused by a sinus infection. Common cold, seasonal allergies, nasal polyps are some of the causes that can trigger a headache. A physical exam by an ENT will help determine the cause with an appropriate line of treatment.

Nasal Polyps

Nasal polyps are soft, painless, noncancerous growths lining the nose or sinuses. They occur commonly in adults with asthma, allergies, inflammation in nasal passages or repeat infections.

Nasal polyps are found in nasal passages and sinuses, hollow spaces in the bones around your nose. They hang down like teardrops or grapes. They are formed from mucous membranes which is the thin soft tissue that lines these parts. These membranes might change naturally over one’s lifetime. Large sized polyps can block the nasal passages and/or lead to breathing problems, a lost sense of smell and frequent infections. Symptoms of chronic sinusitis and polyps are similar to those of many other conditions like common cold. Your ENT will note your allergies and infections and do a physical exam with a nasal endoscope and/or get scans to get a detailed picture depending on the level of severity. Polyps can be successfully treated medication and in some cases an outpatient surgery.

Allergy Testing and Immunotherapy

Allergy testing identifies allergens like dust, pollen or pet dander, bee stings or types of food – which may trigger allergic reactions among people with a weakened immune system. The preventive treatment that is administered to treat the allergies is called immunotherapy.

Sneezing, coughing, nasal congestion, runny nose, headaches, scratchy throat, are some of the symptoms associated with allergies. When medications fail to adequately control allergy symptoms and/or avoidance of trigger factors is not possible, immunotherapy can be used as a mode of treatment. Skin prick/scratch test, blood test, are some of the ways to test your body’s response to specific allergens or allergy triggers. Immunotherapy, in the form of shots or medication, is a safe, effective treatment, which ultimately enables your body to tolerate substances you are allergic to. An ENT doctor will choose the best test for you based on symptoms and potential allergy triggers.

No. Balloon Sinuplasty devices are endoscopic tools used within regular sinus surgeries and may be used with other medical therapies. They do not limit future treatment options for patients.

Balloon Sinuplasty is a minimally invasive procedure and has been clinically proven to be safe by leading ENT doctors. Unlike other surgical methods used to clear blocked sinus openings, this procedure does not remove any bone or tissue and recovery is fast. Whether it is right for you or not will be determined by your ENT doctor depending upon the severity of symptoms.

Balloon Sinuplasty is less invasive than traditional sinus surgery with minimal bleeding. Time to recover varies with each patient. Usually, recovery is typically fast and most patients return to work and normal activities within 2-3 days.

FESS is a surgery for sinus disease. Sinusitis develops when the tissue that lines your sinuses begins to swell, trapping mucus which can cause bacterial infections. FESS is called as functional because it is done to restore how your sinuses work, or function.

Tissues can always grow back and may be required to be taken out after few years. Having said that, it is not, however, necessarily the case and the surgery allows your airways to open and become clearer. FESS eases your symptoms and limits how often your chronic sinus flares.

There are different types of nasal obstructions.

  • Deviated Septum: It is a wall-like structure that divides the nostrils. Simply put, it just means that it is crooked.
  • Inferior Turbinate Hypertrophy: The turbinates are bony structures in your nasal cavity. When irritated by allergies and dust, they swell and can cause breathing difficulties.
  • Choanal Atresia – This is a congenital defect where excess tissue in the nasal airway creates a partial or full blockage, causing difficulty breathing.

Nasal polyps, foreign objects in the nose, oversized adenoids, and swelling of the nasal lining due to allergies can all cause a nasal obstruction as well.

The decreased volume of air passing through the nasal cavity due to nasal obstruction can cause:

  • Chronic nasal congestion or stuffiness
  • Incessant nasal blockage or obstruction
  • Trouble breathing normally through nose
  • Difficulty in sleeping, snoring, and fatigue
  • Inability to get sufficient air during activities

Seeing blood coming out of the nose is quite alarming. So the first thing to do is to relax. Sit upright and lean your body and your head slightly forward and pinch the soft part of the nose with the thumb and index finger for at least five minutes. If the nosebleed slows, continue holding for another 15 minutes. Breathe through your mouth.

You should immediately see your ENT doctor, if you are losing a heavy amount of blood, feel faint or lightheaded, if you cannot stop your nosebleed after 20 minutes of trying or have had an immediate injury to your head, face or nose. 

Yes. Nose bleeds are described by the site of the bleed. The most common is the anterior nosebleed which starts in the front of the nose on the lower part of the wall that separates the two sides of the nose. This is most common in children. The other posterior nosebleed is caused by a bleed in larger blood vessels in the back part of the nose near the throat. This can be a more serious nosebleed.

Both of the above have similar signs and symptoms. But acute sinusitis is a temporary condition wherein infection of the sinuses is often associated with cold. Symptoms and signs of chronic sinusitis last at least 12 weeks. One may have many episodes of acute sinusitis before it becomes chronic.

This condition is rarely life-threatening, but it can become dangerous at times, if left untreated. Due to the proximity of the sinuses to the eyes and brain infections can spread beyond the sinuses into your bones, brain or spine. If sinusitis symptoms lasting more than a few days aren’t improving, or are worsening, a visit to the ENT is a must.

Unlike a normal migraine headache, a sinus headache occurs typically in the face, cheeks and around the eyes when one has a ‘cold’. Sinus headaches last for days or weeks till the sinusitis is treated with medication/antibiotics. Migraine headaches come and go. 

Allergic reactions can range from mild to severe. In some severe cases, allergies can trigger a life-threatening reaction known as anaphylaxis, which could range from respiratory to cardiovascular to skin related reactions.

Immunotherapy is a preventive treatment for allergic reactions and involves giving gradually increasing doses of the substance, or allergen, to which the person is allergic. This incremental increase of the allergen causes the immune system to become less sensitive to the substance, probably by causing production of a “blocking” antibody, which reduces the symptoms of allergy when the substance is encountered in the future. Immunotherapy also reduces the inflammation that characterizes rhinitis and asthma.

Allergy testing can help determine which particular pollens, molds, or other substances one is allergic to. Allergens or allergy causing substances can trigger a variety of conditions like asthma, hay fever or allergic rhinitis. You may need medication to treat your allergies or alternatively, knowing the allergy triggers, one can try to avoid exposure.

Polyps are usually linked with some cause of inflammation in the nose like, asthma, repeat sinus infections, allergic rhinitis, and chronic rhinosinusiitis. You can’t prevent nasal polyps. However, nasal sprays, antihistamines, and allergy shots may help prevent polyps that block your airway. Treating sinus infections right away also may help.

Removing polyps with surgery often makes it easier to breathe through your nose. However, over a period of time polyps often return. Many people need to stay on steroid treatments for a long time or have repeat surgery.

Polyps develop because the mucous membranes lining the nose or sinuses change. Nasal polyps can grow anywhere on the lining of the nose or the sinuses. They seem to grow due to long-term swelling and inflammation in the nose from allergies, asthma, or infection. Small polyps may not cause any problems. Large polyps can block your sinuses or nasal airway.

Apart from the deep and constant pain in your cheekbones, forehead, or the bridge of your nose, the pain usually gets stronger when you move your head suddenly or strain. A migraine headache most often occurs only on one side of the head, or the temples or high in the forehead or at the back of the head.

Allergic reactions can range from mild to severe. In some severe cases, allergies can trigger a life-threatening reaction known as anaphylaxis, which could range from respiratory to cardiovascular to skin related reactions.